Category Archives: Electric Circuit Law

Making an Electronic Torch – Schematic, PCB Version and Breadboard Version

by : Antonius (@sw0rdm4n)
http://www,ringlayer.net

Electronic Torch is an unique electronic circuit to learn about how electric flow through each components. Below is the electronic circuit:

torches

Part Lists Based on Above Schematic

– 2 resistor 330 ohm or 320 ohm. (breadboard version can uses up to 3 resistors)

– 3 led

– 3 switch

– 1 Dioda in4001

How this works on PCB Version ?

Below is the electronic circuit logic flow :

– If switch is on,  the current will flow  through:

D1 (since it’s a dioda it will prevent reverse current) ->  switch ->  R1 -> led1 -> led2 -> ground

– If s1 is on,  the current will flow  through:

D1 -> S1 -> R1 -> led1 -> led2 -> ground.

– if s2 is on, the current will flow through:

D1 -> S2 -> R2 -> led 3 -> ground

Solder each component based on above schematic

solder

Note:

– Clean your solder with sponge before soldering

– Before soldering drop some soldering tin on top of your solder

– Don’t use to much soldering tin

And here comes the pcb version of the torch :

torch

Breadboard Version

We can also making breadboard version, vero board version, and so on. Here’s the breadboard version of this electronic torch with 3 resistor (1 resistor 330 ohm and 2 resistor 320 ohm).

bread

To see how this circuit works, you can see this video:

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Basic Electric Circuit Laws

By : Antonius (sw0rdm4n)
http:///www.ringlayer.net

There are several electric circuit laws, some famous laws are kirchoff’s law and ohm’s law.

OHM LAW

Ohm law calculation is the easiest calculation on electric circuits. Ohm law applied in hydraulic mechanism, electric circuits, etc. Ohm’s law on electric circuit defines that the pressure (voltage) is the volume of electricity multiplied with the resistance :

V = I.R

V = volt , volt is the pressure of electricity.

I = ampere, ampere is volume of electricity

R = resistance

I = V/R

as an example we have some little electric circuit :

ohms

As an example pressure = 9V, resistance = 220 Ω, So current can be calculated so easily :

I = 9/220

So current is:

I = 0,04 ampere

KIRCHOFF LAW

Kirchoff law defines on the voltage and ampere. Kirchoff’s law on current (volume of electricity):

Σi = 0

As an example here we have simple circuit:

kcl

Suppose we will calculate I4 if:

I1 = 0,4 A (positive current)

I2 = 2A (positive current)

I3= 1A (negative current)

This is the simple algebra:

Σi = 0

i1 + i2 = i3 -i4

i1+i2 – i3 -i4 = 0

(0,4 + 2 ) – 1 – i4 = 0

i4 = 2,4 – 1 = 1,4A

Second law is kirchoff pressure law:

Σv = 0

For an example we have a simple electric circuit:

KirchhoffLoops

Suppose:

v1 = 20 volt

v2 = 10 volt

R1 = 110 Ω

R2 = 220 Ω

Current (I) calculation is simple :

Since Σv = 0 :

V1 – (I * R1) – V2 – (I * R2) = 0

20 – (I * 110) – 10 – (I * 220) = 0

10 – (I * 110) – (I * 220) = 0

10 =  (I * 110) +  (I * 220)

10 =  i * 330

I = 10/330

I = 0.030

So the current is 0,030 ampere.