Category Archives: Electronic

DIY – USB Mini Fan

This is a very easy guide to make an usb powered mini fan.

Requirement:

– 1 usb cable
– 1 quadcopter propeller
– 1 breadboard
– soldering iron + tin
– 2 jumper wire
– 1-3 0,1 microfarad 50v capacitor
– 1 usb charger (alternatively you can powered up the fan later using power bank or usb port from pc or laptop or any usb charger)

diyfan0

 

First of all, cut the usb cable and isolate the plus and minus from the data transfer cables (green and white is data transfer cable).

diyfan2

As we already know that any usb cable consist of 4 different cables:
diyfannx

The red one is for positive volt, the black one is for negative volt, the green will be used for upstream data transfer and the white one will be used for downstream data transfer.

Here we got isolated plus and minus cable where each of the cable has been soldered with tip of jumper wire (the red and black one) which is ready to be plugged into our positive and negative spot on breadboard.

diyfan2.2

Next solder the 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor across the motor dc (we can use 1-3 capacitor to deal with motor noise), and plug the quadcopter propeller on top.

Once the ceramic capacitor has been soldered, add 2 jumper wires in order to plug it to breadboard.

diyfan3

And finaly, plug the usb cable and the jumper wire from motor dc on the breadboard and the usb fan is ready.

diyfan4

This usb fan is ready to powered via any 5v power supply. You can powered it with a charger, any usb port from laptop or pc, any power banks or any other 5v power supply.

Here’s the usb fan in action:

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Switch Based on Contact (SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT)

by : Antonius (@sw0rdm4n)
http://www.ringlayer.net

Understanding switch types is very important when developing an electronic circuit. Below is just several example of switches (not a complete list) classified by pole(s) and throw(s).

SPST

spst

SPST stands for single pole single throw.  Pole means how many circuit(s), a switch can control. Throw means how many conducting position for a switch. This one is the basic form of a switch, where this switch has only 2 terminals. When the throw is closed means current can flow, meanwhile when the throw is open, current is break.

In order to understand more, let’s take a look here (sorry for bad drawing skills)

spst_open

 

For example here we have a gate when the gate is open, means the electrical flow is break.

spst_closed

When the gate is closed means current can flow and the lamp is on. Since this only has 1 circuit (the lamp in this case), and only 1 throw (only 1 conducting position that will turn the light on, so this switch is called SPST).

Real life example:

spst2

SPDT

spdt

SPDT stands for single pole double throw. As we can see from the symbol, a single pole double throw switch has 3 terminals.

In order to understand more, let’s take look at below example:

spdt_open

This one is similar to knife switch model, where the condition is open (current can not flow). The throw can be connected whether on right or left terminal.

spdt_closed2

spdt_closed1

Real life example

spdt2

DPST

dpst

DPST stands for double pole single throw.

In order to understand about double pole single throw, take a look on below example.

dpst_open

in dpst , the throw only have one possible conducting, meanwhile it has 2 separate poles.

dpst_closed

When the condition is closed the current can flow to light both 2 circuits. The while lines are any conducting materials.

DPDT

dpdt

DPDT stands for double pole double throw. This one has 2 poles and 2 throws. This one has 6 terminal(s).

Check out below example:

dpdtx

 

Real life example:

dpdgt

 

 

I hope this guide can be a light for those who wanted to understand more about switching in order to do the “Art of controlling the electron”.

 

Reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switch

http://www.colehersee.com/home/spst_spdt_dpst_dpdt

Making an Electronic Torch – Schematic, PCB Version and Breadboard Version

by : Antonius (@sw0rdm4n)
http://www,ringlayer.net

Electronic Torch is an unique electronic circuit to learn about how electric flow through each components. Below is the electronic circuit:

torches

Part Lists Based on Above Schematic

– 2 resistor 330 ohm or 320 ohm. (breadboard version can uses up to 3 resistors)

– 3 led

– 3 switch

– 1 Dioda in4001

How this works on PCB Version ?

Below is the electronic circuit logic flow :

– If switch is on,  the current will flow  through:

D1 (since it’s a dioda it will prevent reverse current) ->  switch ->  R1 -> led1 -> led2 -> ground

– If s1 is on,  the current will flow  through:

D1 -> S1 -> R1 -> led1 -> led2 -> ground.

– if s2 is on, the current will flow through:

D1 -> S2 -> R2 -> led 3 -> ground

Solder each component based on above schematic

solder

Note:

– Clean your solder with sponge before soldering

– Before soldering drop some soldering tin on top of your solder

– Don’t use to much soldering tin

And here comes the pcb version of the torch :

torch

Breadboard Version

We can also making breadboard version, vero board version, and so on. Here’s the breadboard version of this electronic torch with 3 resistor (1 resistor 330 ohm and 2 resistor 320 ohm).

bread

To see how this circuit works, you can see this video:

Basic Electric Circuit Laws

By : Antonius (sw0rdm4n)
http:///www.ringlayer.net

There are several electric circuit laws, some famous laws are kirchoff’s law and ohm’s law.

OHM LAW

Ohm law calculation is the easiest calculation on electric circuits. Ohm law applied in hydraulic mechanism, electric circuits, etc. Ohm’s law on electric circuit defines that the pressure (voltage) is the volume of electricity multiplied with the resistance :

V = I.R

V = volt , volt is the pressure of electricity.

I = ampere, ampere is volume of electricity

R = resistance

I = V/R

as an example we have some little electric circuit :

ohms

As an example pressure = 9V, resistance = 220 Ω, So current can be calculated so easily :

I = 9/220

So current is:

I = 0,04 ampere

KIRCHOFF LAW

Kirchoff law defines on the voltage and ampere. Kirchoff’s law on current (volume of electricity):

Σi = 0

As an example here we have simple circuit:

kcl

Suppose we will calculate I4 if:

I1 = 0,4 A (positive current)

I2 = 2A (positive current)

I3= 1A (negative current)

This is the simple algebra:

Σi = 0

i1 + i2 = i3 -i4

i1+i2 – i3 -i4 = 0

(0,4 + 2 ) – 1 – i4 = 0

i4 = 2,4 – 1 = 1,4A

Second law is kirchoff pressure law:

Σv = 0

For an example we have a simple electric circuit:

KirchhoffLoops

Suppose:

v1 = 20 volt

v2 = 10 volt

R1 = 110 Ω

R2 = 220 Ω

Current (I) calculation is simple :

Since Σv = 0 :

V1 – (I * R1) – V2 – (I * R2) = 0

20 – (I * 110) – 10 – (I * 220) = 0

10 – (I * 110) – (I * 220) = 0

10 =  (I * 110) +  (I * 220)

10 =  i * 330

I = 10/330

I = 0.030

So the current is 0,030 ampere.

Running text pada LCD 16×2 (DFrobot LCD Keypad Shield) dengan Arduino

By : Antonius (sw0rdm4n)
http:///www.ringlayer.net

Untuk menghubungkan arduino dengan layar lcd 16×2, dapat digunakan library LiquidCrystal. Pada contoh kali ini :

- lcd rs pin terhubung ke digital pin 8
- lcd enable pin terhubung ke digital pin 9
- lcd d4 pin terhubung ke digital pin 4
- lcd d5 pin terhubung ke digital pin 5
- lcd d6 pin terhubung ke digital pin 6
- lcd d7 pin terhubung ke digital pin 7

Contoh di atas kita menggunakan lcd keypad shield dari dfrobot:

lcd1

Berikut ini adalah contoh kode yang digunakan untuk membuat running text pada lcd 16×2 :

/*
Library originally added 18 Apr 2008
 by David A. Mellis
 library modified 5 Jul 2009
 by Limor Fried (http://www.ladyada.net)
 example added 9 Jul 2009
 by Tom Igoe
 modified 22 Nov 2010
 by Tom Igoe
  modified August 6 2014
 by Antonius  (@sw0rdm4n)
*/

#include 
/*
- lcd rs pin to digital pin 8
- lcd enable pin to digital pin 9
- lcd d4 pin to digital pin 4
- lcd d5 pin t digital pin 5
- lcd d6 pin to digital pin 6
- lcd d7 pin to digital pin 7

*/
LiquidCrystal lcd(8, 9, 4, 5, 6, 7);

void setup() {
    lcd.begin(16, 1);
}

void loop() {
  int i;
  
  lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  lcd.print("www.ringlayer.net - Open Source - Electronic - Robotic - Security");
  for (i = 0 ; i < 16; i ++) {
      lcd.scrollDisplayLeft(); 
      delay(400);
  } 
}

Pada kode di atas, deklarasi di mana pin2 arduino dan lcd terhubung ditetapkan dengan kode

LiquidCrystal lcd(8, 9, 4, 5, 6, 7);

Selanjutnya kita tentukan ukuran lcd yang akan digunakan adalah pixel width sebesar 16 dan 1 :

    lcd.begin(16, 1);

Pertama-tama cursor diset pada pixel dengan kolom 0 dan row 0 :

  lcd.setCursor(0, 0);

Selantjunya print tulisan yang akan discroll :

 lcd.print("www.ringlayer.net - Open Source - Electronic - Robotic - Security");

Selanjutnya dilakukan pengulangan yang akan menggeser lcd ke kiri sebesar 1 pixel tiap pengulangan dengan interval 400 micosecond :

   for (i = 0 ; i < 16; i ++) {
      lcd.scrollDisplayLeft(); 
      delay(400);
  } 

Hasil tampilan running text bisa dilihat pada video ini :